World War 2
Western Europe Front
After series of expansive movement performed by the Third German Reich in 1939 and early 1940. The German Reich did not stop to expand their territories. On 9 April 1940, The German Reich perform another expansive movement by launching Operation Weserubung, operation to invade Denmark and Norway. The Reich occupied Denmark on that day and Norway was occupied later on 4 June 1940. The Reich still had not satisfied yet, they launched another invasion towards Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands, and France on 10 May 1940. German’s invasion was very effective they occupied Luxembourg on the day they launched the invasion, Belgium in six days, and Netherlands in seven days.
The Battle of France took a little longer because German forces faced heavy resistance by the heavily fortified French Army which was helped by Allies Army that was consisted by United Kingdom Army and United States Army. Even against such heavy defense, the Germans was slowly able to dominate the battlefield. The defeated Allies Army chose to retreat to Dunkirk in order to escape through English Channel to the Britain Island. Unfortunately, the German Forces annihilated the retreating army completely before they could escape to Britain Island on 24 May 1940.
The French Government decided to flee to Britain Island after hearing the Dunkirk massacre that wiped more than half of the French Army. The flight of The French Government ensued chaos upon the remaining army, this chaos made it easy for the German forces to wipe out the remaining French defenses. On 14 June 1940 Paris fell and France capitulated.
After the success of the previous battles, The German Reich launched another battle in order to “finish what must have been finished” said Adolf Hitler on his speech. The German Reich launched Battle of Britain, an aerial operation by the German Air Force, the Luftwaffe, to eliminate the United Kingdom Homeland Royal Air Force’s air superiority that could be a barrier to invade Britain Island, on 10 July 1940. The battle was firstly focused on aerial battle around Shipping Strait. The battle’s main focus shifted into attack on airports and radar stations on 13 August 1940. The battle’s main focus shifted again on 19 August 1940 into attack on strategic buildings and places. This main focus made a significant result as the Spitfire Factory was destroyed. Spitfire is one of the most used aircraft by the Royal Air Force. On 12 September 1940, the Luftwaffe changed its main focus again on destroying Royal Air Force (RAF) base on Britain Island. The result of this change was pretty significant, the Luftwaffe was able to destroy Northolt Airport which was the biggest RAF base on Britain Island. The air raid on that period was also able to destroy many fuel stations needed by British Force to defend their territories. The Luftwaffe then decided to keep air superiority over British Island, city bombing and naval bombing after succeeding to eliminate most of British force on Britain Island. This operation lasted from October 1940 until March 1941 to prepare for German invasion over Britain Island.
Meanwhile in Spain, a scandal involving Spanish senior official that was close to General Franco was revealed on 16 July 1940. The scandal was about bribery that was done by the United Kingdom’s Ambassador for Spain in order to keep General Franco out of the war. Angered by the United Kingdom’s action, General Franco decided to expel the United Kingdom Ambassador, essentially severing the diplomatic relations between two and chose to join the war on the Axis side. Later on 21 July 1940, Franco attacked Gibraltar that was controlled by the British and successfully occupied it, giving Spain full control over Gibraltar Strait. Franco later agreed to send troops to help the Germans the Invasion of the British Isles.
Operation Humpback was a codename for a military operation to conquer British Island by German Reich and Nationalist Spain. The operation involve 12 cruisers, 24 destroyers, 2 capital ships, and 53 submarine from Kriegsmarine, also around 30 division from German Army and 6 division from Spain Army and provided air support by Luftwaffe which has already started operation over British air.
The operation was launched on 2 April 1941 with Kriegsmarine naval mobilization into North Sea and English Channel. The main objective of the Kriegsmarine was to destroy the Home Fleet of the Royal Navy which is the last barrier to invade Britain Island. The first battle clashed at the east sea of Norwich on 8 April 1941. The battle continued with no side dominating over another side. Despite the Kriegsmarine’s heavy casualties at the Norwegian Campaign, the German Reich was able to rapidly produce ships as replacement from 1940 to 1941. The major turning point for this naval battle was on 10 May 1941. The Home Fleet of Royal Navy was trapped and mostly destroyed in the Battle of English Channel. They were attacked from the land, air, and sea by German. Viewing the heavy losses on the Home Fleet, John Tavoy who was the Commander of Home Fleet at the time decided to call for an urgent help to the Mediterranean Fleet on the next day.
On 12 May 1941, almost three-quarter of Mediterranean Fleet went to English Channel taking risk through Gibraltar Strait which had been occupied by Nationalist Spain. In the morning of 14 May 1941, a battle clashed on Gibraltar Straits as already predicted. The fleet attacked by both side of Gibraltar and Morocco, and was also bombed by Spain Air Force. Only half of the fleet managed to pass the strait, the other half was sunk or suffered heavy damage.
On 17 May 1941, The Mediterranean Fleet that passed through the Gibraltar Strait clashed with Kriegsmarine on West Sea of Brest, later this battle was called the Battle of Brest Sea. Erich Raeder ordered the addition of naval bomber support and acquisition of French Fleet from Toulon naval base to support Kriegsmarine on Battle of Brest Sea. The German Reich contacted Spain and Italy on that day to take the French Fleet because they are closer to Toulon than German Army. The fleet was taken easily by Spain and Italy on 19 May 1941, later they depart to English Channel on the next day. This fleet did not had much resistance from the remaining Royal Mediterranian Fleet.
On 24 May 1941 the additional fleet arrived and joined Battle of Brest Sea, the Royal Navy that was outnumbered can be defeated easily. On 16 June 1941, Royal Navy surrendered and fled to Canada. On that day too, Winston Churcill officially announced that the United Kingdom Government would be exiled in Canada as the Britain Island was deemed to be too dangerous and on the edge of invasion. He then asked the remaining army in Britain Island to prepare for an upcoming invasion. Churcill also announce a formation of new Fleet to protect the exile government in Canada.
The German Reich announced the Invasion of Britain Island on 2 August 1941. The invasion of Britain was done through English Channel, the base of the invasion are Calais and Caen with Hastings, Brighton, and Dover as the main landing target. The Invasion’s main objective was to conquer southern Britain Island coast then occupy London and move to the north. On 4th August 1941, all the transport ships were already on position to depart landing ships. The paratroopers were deployed at the back of the enemy line first before the first landing ships arrived on Dover beach at 6 AM and followed by another landing troops in other beaches All troops landed with less resistance at 9 am.
On 9th August 1941, the Axis had already occupied southern coast of Britain Island. The army moved to the north to besieged London from south, southwest, and southeast. The Battle of London started when the Luftwaffe start bombing all London area, and was followed by an attack from the land forces into the heart of the city. Both sides fought hard, but Axis prevailed over the British army. On 29th September 1941, Axis had pushed forward and fully occupied London. All radios over the world repeatedly broadcasted “London has fallen” phrase, a sign that The Allies are on the verge of defeat
Instead of breaking the defending army’s morale, the Fall of London gave spirit and motivation for the British Army to hold Axis from pushing northward. They put up harder resistance. But, the British Army’s lack of supply made their resistance effort useless but it hindered the Axis’ advance greatly. On 1 January 1942, the Axis had successfully pushed into Leeds city, The United Kingdom capitulated on that day because of the many territories lost and the heavy casualties that had been made on their side. And if the war continues there will be many more casualties because the remaining army or civilian did not have enough supplies or weapons to fight.
On early summer of 1943, there was sporadic resistance on Yorkshire, Norfolk, Cumbria, County Durham, and Cornwall. At first, they stated that they were not affiliated with each other. The Axis did not put much attention at first too since their attack was not dangerous and cannot be considered as a threat to Axis occupation over Britain Island. But the sporadic resistance escalated into an organized movement called Free Englishmen Movement, a resistance movement that stated did not associated with the Kingdom. Later they started guerilla warfare over Britain Island from 2 August 1943.
Eastern European Front
Meanwhile in Eastern Europe, there was share of power between USSR and German Reich. It was started when USSR and German Reich signed Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, a non-aggression pact made by both sides on 23 August 1939 and was signed by both foreign ministers. This pact also regulated Eastern Europe partition between USSR and German Reich. Actually the pact was violated by USSR on August 1940 because Soviet annexed Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania. But, Adolf Hitler stated that Eastern Europe was not their concern after Poland, their main focus was Britain Island.
The USSR annexation had not stopped, they claimed Romania’s Bessarabia territory on 27 August 1940. Ion Antonescu, who rose to power in the end of June 1940, stated that the annexation violated Romania’s sovereignty and people of Romania will fight for it. Two days later, Romania joined Axis and asked for help from them. German was unwilling to declare war with USSR, so they just send some volunteer division to help Romania. German gave Hungary and Slovakia task to help Romania defending their territory. The help from Axis came a little too late, the Soviet Army had already occupied half of Bessarabia on 6 September 1940. With the help from German, Romania was able to hold Soviet’s attack for a while.
With a lot of conflict near its border, Bulgaria decided to support Axis but still not joined them. They send some division to help Romania defending Bessarabia. This Bessarabian War has become one of the longest wars in this World War. Although Soviet finally occupied Bessarabia on 2 November 1940, Romania and Bulgaria with the helpfrom German still attacked Soviet army garrison on that territory until now.
When Italy decided to invade Albania on 28 October 1940, Greece helped Albania defended their country. The Greece’s help did not really help Albania to defend their territory. Seeing Greece’s involvement in the defense of Albania, The Axis considered Greece as a hindrance that must be dealt with. An invasion of Greece was considered at that time but not executed considering the current situation of the Axis Army. Meanwhile in Yugoslavia, Fascist partisans were unable launch coup d’etat on Prince Paul, the holder of Kingdom Yugoslavia throne. This failure frustrated Axis leaders because they thought that Yugoslavia would be an easy challenge.
Axis declared an invasion of Yugoslavia and Greece on 6 April 1940. Yugoslavia was attacked from Italy, Hungary, Austria, and Bulgaria, while Greece was attacked from Albania and Bulgaria. The invasion of Yugoslavia was met with little resistance than expected. Belgrade fell on 20 April 1941, and almost all of Yugoslavia had already occupied by 1 June 1941. Some divisions from the Yugoslavian Invasion went south to help Greece Invasion. The Greece Invasion went a little longer than the Yugoslavia Invasion because of the number of divisions that were involved are fewer, plus the geographical condition of Greece that consisted of islands made it slower. The mainland of Greece can be occupied by 20 July 1941, while the islands was considered later for Axis.
Mediterranian Sea and North Africa
The Italian fleet launched Operation Popeye on 20 May 1941. The operation’s main objective was to eliminate the remaining Royal Navy and the Allies’ Fleet on Mediterranian Sea and to secure a supply line between Europe to Africa. The operation lasted for one year until Battle of Ionian Sea occured on 11 January 1942. At this battle, the Royal Navy was decimated by the Italian Navy. The result of the battle served as an alert for the Allies that the Axis had dominated the Mediterranean. The remaining Royal Navy escaped through the Suez Canal.
Meanwhile on North Africa, after the announcement of France capitulation, The Algerian People’s party declared independence from France on 2nd February 1941. This declaration incited an independence war between Algerians and the ruling France on Algeria. This war also incited the same movement on Tunisia. The Tunisians demanded the same independence. Neo Destour, a liberal nationalist Tunisian party at that time was urged to do same thing. After some consideration, they finally decided to declare independence on 6 April 1941. With the deteriorating French influence over North Africa , Spain claimed French Morocco on 12 April 1941. Their claim was unchallenged by France so they gained their claim easily and successfully connected Spanish Morocco and Spanish Western Sahara in two weeks.
On 30 August 1942 Erwin Rommel’s victory on Second Battle of Alamein made a major turn on Axis North Africa Campaign. As the Allies’ morale were broken with many defeats, the Axis army easily pushed forward until Alexandria on 12 December 1942. The army then divided into two. The first army went east to secure Suez Canal, Syria and Palestine. While the second army tasked to conquered Cairo and the rest of Egypt, connecting Egypt and Italian Ethiopia.
The Suez Canal was not-so-easy task for Axis Army. They were surprised with the heavy resistance put up by the Allies on Suez Canal. It was conquered after heavy fight on 27 February 1943, the scattered Allied forces escaped to the south. Two weeks later, the Axis army had marched easily into Turkey’s borderline and officially annihilated Allies force in North Africa. Meanwhile Cairo was conquered with little resistance on 3 March 1943. The army continued to march southward. This march was named Desert March because their invasion from Cairo toward Sudan to connect Egypt with Ethiopia was like an easy march from Egypt to Ethiopia. The invasion took a longer time because the area were so vast and through hot dessert terrain. They finally connected Egypt and Ethiopia on 28 July 1943. The last objective from this march was seizing Horn of Africa from Allies. Ultimately, they seized horn of Africa and ended the Desert March
North America and Central America
On March 18, 1938 Mexico expropriated all oil reserves, facilities, and foreign oil companies. This took place when the Mexican president and his general declared all mineral and oil reserves found within Mexico belong to the government. This caused international boycott of Mexican products by United States, Netherlands and the United Kingdom. And worsening Mexican relations with the three of them. In August 1 1938, Mexican government received an offer from a businessman called William Rhodes Davis from Davis Oil Company, who had a refinery in Europe. The offer was a barter agreement where Mexico would give crude oil to Davis, who then would sell refined oil to Germany in exchange for ‘machinery’ to Mexico. The Mexican government agreed for the barter to take place and thus tightening the relation between Mexico and Germany. On the following day, Mexico received another offer. This time it was from the Kriegsmarine, German’s Military Navy. The offer was a collaboration between the Kriegsmarine and Mexican government to open an Aviation company and a Naval factory in Mexico. German’s Kriegsmarine was willing to train and teach the technology behind the production and train Mexican’s army to use the product. Mexico agreed to this offer.
The deals that were made with Germany increased Fascist popularity among Mexican Government and by the end of the year a lot of Fascist political parties rose in Mexico. In January 13 1939, Germany invited Mexico to join the Axis and without much time Mexico agreed and joined the Axis. This worries the United States and all the neighboring country, but none of them took any action because those who are worried were either considered Mexico as ‘weak’ and not a threat or in an economic depression. After officially joining the Axis, Mexico received a message from Germany, the message contained an offer to ‘reclaim what was lost’. This offer was for Mexico to invade the United States as soon as possible and cripple the nation and if Mexico agree to the offer, Germany promised the states of New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona for Mexico to keep should they succeeded. The offer was accepted by Mexico. The Mexican government remembered the Zimmerman’s Telegram from WW I and how it could change the shape of the world, Mexico rejected the telegram when WW I erupted and decided to take this offer to show their support towards the Axis.
When all is said and done, The Mexican army supported by Germany began their military training and modernization. This was done in secrecy so that it would not raise any suspicion towards Mexico. The modernization and training lasted for almost the whole year. In that time, Germany and Mexico formulated a military operation called ‘Operation Titanfall’.
Operation Titanfall was the code name for Mexico’s invasion of the United States of America on Wednesday December 20 1939. The plan was to launch a sudden Invasion while the rest of the world is still in confusion or shock about German’s invasion of Poland in September 1 1939. The plan involved a lot of manpower and specialized infantry regiments, especially mountaineers to deal with the rough terrain of the western part of the United States. The strategy was to occupy and cripple United States’ production heavy state in the west, effectively removing the United States from the equation should World War II erupts.
On December 19 1939 Mexico declared war against the US while the Mexican army was already at the border and ready to Invade. On the following day at 00:01 Mexican forces invaded the United States through Texas while maintaining a firm frontline on the border. Mexican army’s advance was met with little resistance as the US army was still weak and unprepared for this kind of military aggression. Texas fell in 20 days with little casualty. This surprise Invasion was unforeseen by US and their Allies, thus any immediate respond was impossible. The National Guard raised ‘levée en masse’ to protect the southern states, resist the occupation and give time for the main army to mobilize. On January 23 1939 Arizona fell to the Mexican Army after the fall of Tucson, by this time a few battle between the Mexican Army and the US army erupted and the Mexican Army came up on top because of superior training received from Germany. The US army was overwhelmed by the sheer number of the invading forces and decided not to engage the main army but to apply a ‘defense in depth’ tactic.
After the fall of Arizona, the Mexican Army attacked New Mexico from Arizona and Texas effectively decimated the defending US forces by the two-directional attack. New Mexico fell in January 30 1940. After the fall of New Mexico, the Mexican forces turned its attention towards Los Angeles and Las Vegas. Both of these cities were considered vital to hold on the western coast of the United States. Las Vegas was the first to be attacked by the Mexican forces, the city puts little to no resistance against the occupation and fell in February 14 1940.
The Attack of Los Angeles was a disaster for the Mexican forces. The US army was heavily fortified inside the city. The attack lasted for a full month from February 4 1940 to March 4 1940. Mexican Air force sent about 671 planes to bomb the city and secure air superiority above the city, the operation proved costly for the Mexican as 562 of their planes were shot down by the defender’s Anti-Air positions inside the city. The US army’s ‘defense in depth’ tactic proved successful against the Mexican. Their heavy defenses inside the city cut down many of the attacking forces. On February 17 1940 the Mexican army decided to surround the city and sent an ultimatum to the remaining US forces inside the city to surrender. The defenders rejected the ultimatum and the fighting went on. They fought door to door, building to building until finally on March 3 1940 the defenders surrendered. About 6.690 US personnel were captured and 652 personnel ran away in fear of torture and execution by the Mexican Army.
The fall of these two cities in the western part of the United States sent a heavy blow to the US army’s morale. Many of the US citizen began to doubt the capability of the National Guard and their army to defend the American soil. Thus, some of the population decided to help the invading forces instead of slowing their advance. This ‘help’ from the rogue population made it easy for the Mexican Army to advance towards San Francisco, one of the invasion’s main objective to secure the western coast. Before attacking San Francisco, the invading force secured Nevada on March 13 1940. Capturing a lot of US infantry stationed there.
After Nevada was secured, on March 14 1940 to April 1 1940 the Mexican Army prepared an attack on San Francisco. This attack was carefully planned because of the heavy US presence inside the city, the difficult terrain of the surrounding area, and the presence of the US Navy near the shores. The presence of the US Navy proved to be a formidable challenge as the Mexican forces are lacking in terms of Navy strength. The plan of attack was to cover the city with heavy artillery barrage for a full week coupled with heavy air attack to deal with the US Navy near the shore. The barrage and the heavy air attack proved to be successful to soften the defending forces although with heavy structural damage on the city. The US Navy was unaffected by the heavy Mexican air force presence above them, this makes a direct attack into the city very costly and the Mexican army cannot afford to lose many personnel as they still have a lot of grounds to cover. The invading force opted to besiege the city and cut off the supply lines in and out of the city. The US forces inside the city has no choice but to rely on their Navy to bring in from the capital through the Panama canal, covering long distance and taking a lot of time. In June 13 1940 San Francisco finally surrendered after two months of endless bombardment and starvation. Almost all surviving US soldiers surrendered and captured by the Mexican army.
In June 20 1940, the invading Mexican Army split into two fronts. The first one marches north from California and Nevada to occupy Oregon and Washington. And the second one marches north towards Oklahoma and Kansas. This was the last step of the Mexican plan to dominate the western coast of the United States and to cripple the United States’ capability to produce military armaments and maintain their remaining army. The attack of Oregon and Washington met with heavy resistance from the defending forces but finally done in July 23 1940. While the attack of Oklahoma and Kansas ended in August 2 1940.
After occupying Kansas, Oklahoma, Oregon and Washington the invading army laid out a plan to attack the states of Utah, Colorado and Idaho from all of the neighboring occupied states. The attack commenced in August 10 1940. The attack was hindered by the rough terrain of the states but because of the mountaineers regiment the Mexican army prevailed. The three states were finally occupied by September 7 1940.
The Mexican army stopped advancing towards United States’ soil and set up a firm frontline on the borders and even set up heavier defensive positions on the Canadian border in Washington. The world tension was high and the Mexican military command decided not to provoke Canada into joining the war in the American side. This sudden halt of the Invasion was planned, after the western coast and the strategic states was taken the Mexican plan was to move south to secure the Panama Canal. The army was split into two, the first one to set up frontlines and defensive position in north America, the second one to plan and execute an invasion southward.
By September 14 1940 the 2nd Invasion force has arrived on Chiapas and Yucatan to prepare for an Invasion to Guatemala, carving a path towards Panama. And the very next day, Mexico declared war and immediately mobilized their massive army into Guatemalan soil.
In September 21 1940 the Capital of Guatemala, Guatemala City fell. The invading army blitz through the nation and immediately moved on and prepare for the next assault. Guatemalan army does not have the time or the manpower to react accordingly to this kind of assault and was completely wiped out.
The neighboring Central American nations were alerted by the invasion and raised armies to defend themselves. The president of El Salvador, afraid of the Mexican army’s wrath decided to open their borders and let the invading army move through their nations instead. The Mexican military command agreed and spared El Salvador. In September 29 1940 the Mexican army began their mobilization into El Salvador, ready to launch another quick invasion towards Nicaragua and Honduras.
In October 1 1940 Mexico declared war against Honduras and Nicaragua. The Invasion began right after the declaration of war was announced, but Nicaragua and Honduras were ready for the attack and put up a lot of resistance. They used guerilla warfare tactics against the invading forces and it was proven to be effective to hinder their movement. The Invasion was struggling to move through the terrain, but in January 5 1941 Honduras and Nicaragua were finally occupied fully by Mexico.
After Honduras and Nicaragua fell into the hands of the Mexican army, the Panama Canal was heavily fortified by the US army, Panaman Army, and with a little reinforcement by the Allies. In January 10 1941, Mexico declared war against Panama and immediately mobilized their army into the Panama territory. The invading army’s movement was smooth in western Panama and by February 10 1941 the western part of Panama was fully occupied.
The Mexican army’s movement was put to a full stop near the Panama Canal. It was heavily fortified and surrounded by a lot of battleships. In 13 February 1941 the battle of Panama Canal commenced. The assault was preceded with heavy artillery bombardments by each side. The defending forces suffered heavy casualties and the Navy surrounding the canal suffered too. The Mexican Air Force succeeded to achieve air superiority above the battlefield and by February 23 1941 the battle ended with the Mexican Army as the winning side.
The fall of Panama Canal secured Axis’ foothold on North and Central America, severely disfiguring the Allies’ supply lines. In February 25 1941 the Mexican army launched a follow-up attack on the eastern part of Panama with great haste. The attack was successful with little to no resistance from Panama and in March 7 1941 Panama was secured.
- Argentina and its neighboring countries.
With Mexico declaring war on the United States, the Militaristic Argentina saw the opportunity to invade Chile while the United States is weak. Argentina raised and mobilized its army westward into the Argentine-Chilean borders. This raised tension between the South American country. In January 7 1940, Argentina declared war against Chile and immediately invaded its neighbor. The Invasion went smoothly and by March 4 1940 Chile was fully occupied by the Argentinian army.
After the fall of Chile, Uruguay joined the Allies in March 5 1940 as a reaction towards Argentinian aggression. This raised even more tension in South America as countries began taking sides in the war. In March 10 1940, Paraguay and Argentina joined the Axis in March 10 1940 and eventually a military alliance later on.
With the newly formed military alliance between Paraguay and Argentina, both nations decided to mobilize their army inside the Brazilian border occupying Rio Grande Sul, Santa Catarina and half of Iguanca and Uruguay. And in April 24 1940, Uruguay fell. The mobilization on Brazil was a reaction to Brazilian and American military operations in South America.
- The United State’s involvement in South America
In December 19 1939 just after the unforeseen Mexican declaration of war, the United States joined the Allies. Four days later, the United States decided to reaffirm the Monroe Doctrine to strengthen its relationship with Brazil and in the end both nations formed a military alliance in January 1 1940. In January 3 1940 US sent a few division to Brazil and Cuba. This mobilization was done in a week and the purpose is to secure South America.
Brazil and the US formulated a military operation called ‘Operation Market Stall’. The objective of this operation is to invade and cripple Venezuela’s oil productions. Venezuela has been sending military aids and oil to the Axis in secret, mainly Mexico and helped tremendously in Mexican invasion. The plan was executed in January 14 1940, where the US and Brazil declared war against Venezuela. Four hours after the declaration of war, both army launched a three-pronged attack on Venezuelan soil from Brazil, Trinidad and Curacao.
After two months of fighting, all of the Venezuelan coast were occupied by the Allies. Moreover, the state of Bolivar was partly occupied by Brazil. The Venezuelan resistance was still strong at this point and the fight went on until April 3 1940 where Venezuela surrendered.
After the fall of Venezuela, Colombia joined the Allies and sent military aids and personnel to Brazil and the United States. In April 11 2017 the US and Brazil mobilized their armies towards Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo in reaction to the mobilization of Paraguayan and Argentinian army inside the Brazilian borders. The allied forces arrived on its destination in April 25 1940.
In April 30 1940 both forces met and the Battle of Campo Grande began. The Axis forces were put at a disadvantage because of the terrain and hostile territory where the Allied forces maintained air superiority everywhere. After almost two months of fighting, in June 23 1940 the Axis were pushed back out of Brazilian territory. After the win, the Allied forces mobilized their remaining army to liberate Uruguay.
In July 10 1940 Allied forces arrived in Uruguay and fought a hard battle against the occupying Axis forces inside the country. The Uruguayan resistance helped the Allied forces tremendously in the fight sabotaging and cutting off supply lines that was meant for the occupying Axis forces. In February 2 1941 Uruguay was finally liberated.
After securing Uruguay and pushing back the Axis army out of the Allied territory, Brazil and the US made another military operation called ‘Operation Armadillo. The main goal of this operation is to take Buenos Aires and force Argentina to capitulate. To achieve this, the Allied forces will be split into two part. The first half is set to secure a safe naval passage from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean by taking Rio Grande and Cape Horn, this attack will be commenced from the Falkland Isles. While the Argentinian army is forced to defend Rio Grande and Cape Horn, the second half of the Allied force will attack Buenos Aires.
In March 7 1941, Operation Armadillo was set in motion. The invasion of Rio Grande and Cape Horn was a success, pulling the majority of the Argentinian defense force south leaving Buenos Aires thinly defended. The Brazilian army seized the opportunity and attacked Buenos Aires from Uruguay taking the Argentinian defense force by surprise. The Argentinian government was moved from Buenos Aires to Cordoba in reaction to the attack. After a more than a year of fighting, in May 3 1942 Buenos Aires, Rio Grande and Cape Horn has fallen into the Allies’ hands, completely disorienting and breaking the Argentinian forces.
The fall of Buenos Aires did not bring the effect that it was hoped. Argentina kept fighting instead of pushing for peace. Because of this, in October 1942 Brazil swept the eastern Argentinian coast, connecting occupied territories from Buenos Aires and Rio Grande.
- Bolivia and Peru
In January 3 1943, Gualberto Villarroel staged a successful coup in Bolivia. Seizing the seat of government for himself. Gualberto is a militarist and nationalist leader this aligned his interest with the Axis’. Shortly after he came into power, Bolivia declared war on Brazil to support the Axis.
Gualberto and his actions is considered a threat by Peruvian Government and Peru decided to join the Allies. Peru declared war on Bolivia in January 8 1943 to support the Allies.
In the 1940s Japanese won the second sino-japanese war. The Japanese army annihilated the Chinese Nationalist Army, rendering Mao Zedong’s master plan to ‘play’ the conflict useless. With the failure of Mao Zedong’s plan the Japanese forces swept through China easily and destroyed the remaining Chinese Communist Army scattered through the nation. Mao Zedong was found by the Japanese and executed. The territories gained by the Japanese from the Chinese Communist and Nationalists parties were fully integrated into Manchukuo in the mid 1940s.
After successfully occupying China, the Japanese turned its attention towards Indochina. In early August 1941 the Japanese commenced an Invasion into Indochina and the Dutch East Indies. While the Japanese main army invaded, the puppet state of Manchukuo mobilized its army to form a frontline on Burma’s border.
After the fall of China, Siam declared its support for the Japanese. Declared its border free for the Japanese army to pass and gave military support such as manpower and weapons.
In March 9 1942 the Dutch Colonial force finally surrendered to the Japanese invasion. But the resistance remains strong in some provinces. The other half of the Japanese Invasion forces invaded the French Indochina from Chinese lands, already occupied half of Indochina when the Dutch surrendered.
In April 4 1942 French Indochina was successfully occupied by the Japanese. After the full occupation, the Japanese, Manchukuo and Siamese forces began to mobilize towards Burma.
In April 20 1942 the Japanese along with its allies attacked Burma from the Chinese-Burmese border and from the Burmese-Siamese border. Effectively spreading the Burmese defense thin. In June 8 1942, The Japanese army from Siamese has reached the gates of Rangoon. The assault of Rangoon was launched in June 10 1942 where a whole division of Allied forces held the assault back for a full month until they were fully surrounded by the Japanese and its allies. Rangoon fell in August 14 1942.
The fall of Rangoon made occupying the rest of Burma easy, with the Allied forces retreating from Burma to the British Raj with broken morale and heavy casualties the Japanese invading forces fully occupied Burma and fortifying the borders between Burma and British Raj.
Australia in the WW I was dragged into a bloody battle against the Ottoman Empire by the British Empire in Gallipoli which was deemed costly, unnecessary and not within Australia’s own interest.
In 1936 Germany decided to remilitarize Rhineland, this caused the world tension to rise and war looms over Europe once again. With the bloody Gallipoli past in mind Australia decided to not be dragged into another costly war. The only way to ensure that was to take complete control of its own foreign policy. Australia decided to abandon the Westminster System installed by the UK and supported the minor communist party within the country. This leads to a communist revolution in November 1941. The revolution successfully toppled the government and declared independence from Great Britain.
The newly installed Communist government changed the official name of Australia from Australia to Australian’s People Republic. The movement of the Japanese in Dutch East Indies forced APR to join Comintern as a safe guard if Japanese decided to invade Australia. The Soviet Union accepted APR into Comintern and immediately signed a Defensive Pact between APR and the Soviet Union.
India or well-known as British Raj was one of the remaining huge Allies military foothold after the Allies defeat on Europe and North Africa. On 8 August 1942, Mahatma Gandhi delivered a speech called Quit India at the Gowalia Tank Maidan, demanding withdrawal of the British from India. In response, the India National Congress (INC) launched mass protest to support this demand. This demand was raised after the failure of Crispps Mission. The purpose of this mission is to persuade India to cooperate with the British in their War effort. The British Raj Viceroy immediately imprisoned all leaders of INC without any trials on the same day. This act ignited another mass protest demanding the Government to release the leaders.
This act was noticed by Subhas Candra Bose, an ex INC leader who was exiled in Europe. Bose thought that it was a right time for him to return to India. He then contacted Japan as an effort to acquire weapon support in order for war preparation. When he was in Europe he made a league of army consisted of Indian people abroad. He brought the league back to fight along with him. Bose arrived in Rangoon on 29 October 1942. At the day he arrived, he made a deal with Japan to support him and he will gave back support if he succeded to liberate India.
On 9 November 1942, he launched a surprise attack on the garrisoning troops on the Burmese-Indian border and defeated them. He established a supply line to arm the Indian. Bose was seen in Agra on 22 November 1942. It was rumored that he was doing a negotiation with some Indian commander in the British Indian Army to create some kind of a resistance movement. The rumor was true, while the protest was not stopped yet, Bose’s person provoked the mob and the mob were enrage. The angry mob escalated the protest into a riot on the following day, the riot spread to every city in the United province and its neighboring province on 26 November 1942. The riot turned into an armed conflict with led by Bose and the British Indian Army Commander.
On 1 December 1942, Bose ordered the Army to conquer Bengal area. This area was the main entry point for the Japanese support for them. Bose also ordered an attack on prison that held an important political prisoner to release said prisoner. On 3 December 1942, Bose called a meeting between him, INC leaders, and Indian Muslim League to discuss the independence of India. The meeting resulted in a declaration of independence of India as an Independent state free from the British.
On the next day, the British Raj Viceroy declared that all politician that was involved in India’s Independence were an insurgent and the Independence of India was an illegal act so the British did not recognize it. This statement anger all the leaders, they ordered Quit India War, an Independence war to expel the British from india. This war was fully supported by the Indian people. they volunteered en masse to join the war so the British Army was outnumbered and could be easily defeated. In the verge of another defeat, the British called for a negotiation on 2 January 1943 with Gandhi, they agreed to end the war. The content of the Agreement was for the British to recognize India as an independent and sovereign state and India will guarantee a safe passage for the remaining British army and colonial government to leave within 96 hours. This agreement was called the 96 hours agreement. On the next day, Gandhi spoke in front of the people in Delhi as the First leader of India, expressing gratitude to the Axis and stating that India was a neutral country, but India would help the Axis with resources.
On 24 October 1943, US and UK held a meeting to talk about the war. The result of this talk was to call for a meeting with the Axis. The Axis agreed, the meeting was held on 26 October 1943 The Axis sent German and Japan to represent their side to talk with the US and UK. The result was :
- both axis and allies would held a ceasefire in all front all over the world until further notification.
- The Allies demanded a conference between all country in the world.
- The Axis agreed the conference in one condition : the chair MUST be from two Axis country and one neutral country
By: Naufal Rhyo